Monday, May 26, 2008

"Spirit and Mind" -> What Is Kenosis?

By in large, I try to stay away from terms like "trinity." With my track record of literal interpretation of the the Bible, and my attraction to theology, you would think that I would be talking about it all the time. As a matter of fact, the early Church quickly came to love the term trinity. Wittiness the Athanasian Creed:

So that in all things, as is aforesaid, the Unity in Trinity and the Trinity in Unity is to be worshipped.
He therefore that will be saved must thus think of the Trinity.

My biggest problem is that trinity is not mentioned anywhere in the scripture. We have the Father, who is God, the Spirit, who is God, and the Son, who is God. We know that there is only one God. Therefore, you would at surface value seem to have all the parts of the Trinity. However, I am uncomfortable simply calling this the Trinity, simply because if this was the label that we were to use, then I think God would use it in the Bible. Now, mind you, the Trinity is what I believe. However, I just believe that we can never fully understand the relationship of the Godhead.

So, with this being said, I am going to go directly into classical theology and use the term Trinity.

I am assuming that you either know about the basic framing of the doctrine of the Trinity or you can read about the basic framing of the Trinity on Wikipedia. What I would like to into the mechanics of the Trinity, and then I would like to look at the idea of Kenosis, which recently came up in the comments of this blog.

Let's hit a couple of highlights of the Trinity.

1. There is only one God.
2. This Godhead has separate persons.
3. All of these persons have their own roles

Now, if you do wander over to Wikipedia, you will see the Shield of The Trinity, or Scutum Fidei, which is at the beginning of this post. I think this does about as good as job as we can in giving a visual aid to the concept. However, as mentioned before, I also think that you can visualize a rough allegory in your own being. Here is the translated version of this very old device to describe the trinity.

You probably recognize that you are more than one thing. At the very least, you are familiar with a perception of dualism: that you have a mind and a separate body. While you recognize both exist, you are only whole when both are present. (And I have argued for a tri-nature in this blog, but since you may not be able to perceive it, I will not write about that here.) You are familiar with how the body will do things without you even thinking about it. The mind can ignore things that the body does. So, are you two people? No. There is only unity in the whole.

Now the above analogy quickly breaks down as it does not suggest the fullness of intelligence and personality in the Trinity, but it can give you a flavor of what we might call the Trinity. You have three parts of the Godhead, each with its own personality that may seem separate on one level, but they are all necessary to make up the Godhead.

Let's pull out another $.50 big word: Immutability.

Immutability is the belief that God is unchanging. I strongly adhere to this. God is the same today, yesterday, and tomorrow. A number of years ago, I was in a Sunday School class with a teacher that was elected to the position more because of his financial success rather than his knowledge of the Bible. (Sad but true. Often we ascribe financial success as equal to spirituality smart.) As he was teaching the Bible to us, he suggested that God had changed from the Old Testament to the New Testament.

"Wait a minute," I said. "Are you suggesting that God evolves?"

He answered in the affirmative.

Unfortunately, this was directly against the tenet held by the Church that I we were attending. I vigorously objected, and if I remember correctly, I basically drove this guy out of teaching. In retrospect, I did it in a very wrong way, as I should have restored him gently, but I will not spend more time on my own failures in the post.

I have seen this many times before. Both in Christian circles and non-Christian circles. People will read the New Testament and not the Old Testament. They will read the Gospels but not Revelation. The reason that they do this is that they are uncomfortable with the entire scripture. However, Jesus himself told us that the entire scripture was valid. If you have seen Jesus, you have seen the Father.

If we simply stop here, that Jesus and the Father is one with the Spirit, we then lose the flavor of what the scripture actually says about the Godhead. This is where we want to go back to the original picture at the beginning of the post. While Jesus is God, he is not the Father. I can't reinforce how important this is. To understand the Trinity, we must recognize that there is separation as well as unity.

Recently, on of the comments in this blog said, "...that means that indeed suffering (immutably and eternally) for the sins of the world, is not only something Christ does, but something the Father does as well."

See, while this is an attractive simplification of the Trinity unfortunately it leads to what some would call the heresy of Patripassianism, another $.50 word for the day. The derivation of the word should be pretty clear.

Patris = Father.
Passion = Suffering on the Cross.

This is closely related to a similar $.50 word: Sabellianism.

Let's talk about this for a minute. In the picture to the left you will see the famous book cover of Douglas R Hofstadter's Godel, Escher and Bach. In the picture, a cube hangs from a strings. Now, three lights are shown in three different directions, and you get 3 different letters on the wall. So, even though the object is the same, you see it in three different ways. Now, I have heard some people use analogies exactly like this to frame what the trinity is like. This means that God is all the same thing, but sometimes we see him in different ways. So the difference in the trinity is our perception of God, not in God intrinsically. This is Sabellianism, and it is strictly wrong.

God is made up three distinct personalities, and these three are separate and equal. They are all the same substance, they share all in common, they are one, yet they are different.

So, Jesus did suffer on the cross, but the Father did not. Patripassianism begs Sabellianism, and restores all linkage of the trinity so that no separation exists. However, if you examine the Bible you will see that God the Father is never called out as suffering. If you go to classical catechisms, such as Westminster, you will find that he call out that God has no emotional swings, which is called the impassibility of God.

Even if we call out that certain parts of the Godhead may be impassible, you have to be crazy to say that the Word was impassible. I believe that Son has emotions, and reading Jesus weeping over Jerusalem only points to this emotion. To be human is to have emotions. Therefore, in the Old Testament, when God became angry, at least the Personhood of the Son that had these emotions.

(The alternative, for the classic holder of impassibility is to suggest that these emotions were simply an anthropomorphic image, but this is completely unnecessary if you believe in the emotions of the Son.)

Now, you can see that this is all getting very confusing. This is beyond our conception, and every time we try and get a handle on it, we try and simplify it, which then leads to real problems. The best way of remembering this is not to know "what the Trinity is." We simply have to remember what the Trinity "is not."

However, even in this confusing area, we can put a little bit of a framework to help us.

For me, I find it helpful to think of the Godhead in terms of roles, characteristics, and actions.

1. The persons of the Godhead have separate roles.
2. The persons of the Godhead have the same characteristics, which are immutable.
3. The persons of the God have separate actions, which change according to the circumstances, and in these actions the may perform as different agents in the overall plan of God. This change in agency is not a difference in roles.

Let us return to impassibility. Now, at the risk of an imperfect analogy, my wife and I are one. However, in the family, we take very different roles. I will tell you that I will be tough to our children, when she is soft. When I know that she is grieving, I will be strong. If I am busy in the garage, she will be fixing meals. While this is trivial in comparison, I think it does illustrate a principle where God the Son suffers, so the God the Father does not. I think the doctrine of impassibility, as reflected in different roles in the Godhead, is the most rational exegesis of the scripture.

Let's explore the roles a bit more.

In the Godhead, the Father has the ultimate role of the Father. The best analogy to the Father? Obviously, it is what a good Father should be. A good Father holds the family together. The good Father leads the family. A good Father is the ultimate holder of responsibility. Do any of these adequately reflect the Father's role? No. But it is good enough for us to get a handle on it.

In the Godhead, the Spirit is the most mysterious of the personalities. The Roman Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox split because of the Filioque Clause in the Nicene creed. I will not get into this here, but I believe God left it hazy for a purpose. You can read my thoughts here. Needless to say, the Spirit is clearly an agent that acts for the Godhead. Often it equips the Saints for Action.

In the Godhead, the Son has the role of Maker. All things are made in him and through him. The nature of the Godhead is one of redemption. I cannot stress this enough, and I wish I had already done a post on this. However, the immutable nature of redemption in the Trinity made it so that some mechanism of reconciling us to the Godhead would be achieved. In this light, it was Christ that became the sacrifice for us to be saved.

Now, HOW we are saved is under a lot of debate, and this is called Soteriology in theology. I have no desire to open this up now, but only to say that blood must be shed by Jesus to attain our salvation, and our belief in this as our salvation saves us. We can debate the mechanics of this, but the act to become saved is clear.

So, remember that the roles of the Godhead are all very different.

While the Godhead has these roles defined clearly, these roles will also drive different agencies (or sub-roles) depending on the circumstance. John 1 tells us that the Word (Jesus) made the earth. In his role as maker, he was a formative agent. However, Jesus was also responsible for making a device to reconcile God to man, which was to create the perfect sacrifice for our sins. In his role as sacrifice, he was a sacrificial agent. The agency change to fit the issue, but the role always staid the same. So, while the agency of maker of the earth, seems to be strongly different than the agency of sacrifice, we can recognize that both of these agencies fulfill the role of Maker.

After the role of sacrifice is done, Jesus will take on a different agency. He will still be the lamb, but he will act in a different way. While on earth, he would not break a bruised reed. In Revelations, he is a terrible and mighty lamb, whose wrath is fearful to the nations that have not accepted him as savior.

So, now we finally come to the idea of Kenosis. Unless you are an Open Theist, which I consider just plan wacky, you believe that God is immutable. The problem with this is that Jesus as incarnate, does not seem immutable at face value. Somehow, Christ emptied himself. This is called Kenosis, which is just the Greek word for emptying or empty.

Now, we get into a fight of the Church. What does Kenosis really mean? Those that adhere to a strong version of Kenosis would suggest that Jesus emptied himself of many characteristics of being God. He was no longer omnipotence, omnipresence, omniscience. However, by taking this view, you step right into the hands of Arius and Arianism. A strong belief in Kenosis would brand you a neo-arianist.

Arius believed that Jesus did not always exist with God the Father. Thus, when on earth, Jesus was part God, but did not have the entirety of God in him. Obviously, if the Son was apart from the Father then not all of the immutable nature of the Godhead existed in the incarnation. Therefore, many of the "problems" of Jesus as fully God and fully man goes away.

I simply do not believe this because I believe that this is putting logic to a problem that is not understood.

And while this post has turned into a bit of a book, if you have made it this far, this is the most important part of this post.

Most people spend way too much time on figure to figuring out HOW Jesus became flesh, rather than ask WHY Jesus became flesh.

"Well, that is easy," you'll answer. "He became flesh to become a sacrifice."

To this, I will simply ask "Why?" Why did he need to come to earth? Why did this sacrifice happen on a cross. Why did it have to happen in Jerusalem? Why?

Jesus could have made the sacrifice well away from this earth. He could have had it done in an instant. He did have to become flesh. So, why did he?

If you think about it for a while, it becomes obvious. The reason that Jesus came to earth was to be an example. He lived the life that we were to live. Now, that he has done this, we can follow his example. He deserves praise and glory because he showed us how to live.

Why was Jesus born? To show us how to be born.
Why was Jesus obedient to his parents? To show us how to be obedient.
Why was Jesus baptized? To show us how to be baptized.
Why was Jesus preaching? To show us how to preach.
Why was Jesus suffering? To show us how to suffer.
Why was Jesus mocked? To show us how to return good for bad.
Why was Jesus killed? To show us how to lay down our lives.

See those that believe in strong Kenosis point to how Jesus called on the Father for help.

"See," they say, "if he was omnipotent, he would have used his own power."

They miss the point. Christ asked the Father for help because he was showing us the way. Even though Christ had omniscience, he would ask for guidance.

When Calvin wrote about Phil 2:5ff, he wrote that God emptied himself of glory, and while having all the immutable characteristics of God, he hid his glory behind a veil of flesh. He did not empty his Godhood. He only hid his Godhood.

At the end of the day, I feel most comfortable with Calvin's thoughts here.

Saturday, May 24, 2008

"Spirit" -> The Problem Of Genocide

Recently a family member railed against the newest Prince Caspian movie that has been put out. Now, for me as the marketing dweeb, my first thoughts on this type of activity is the commercial aspect of the film. It has grossed all of $75M, which means that it has gotten a slow start out of the blocks. The reviews have been pretty good, but the newest movie fails the impact of the first installment of the series. Therefore, it will be questionable if it gets a follow-up third episode, as it needs to get to $400M to make enough money to justify making the next one.

Now, while I have not been able to see the film, when my family member savaged it on his blog, I was curious as to why he disliked it so much. The main bone of his contention is that the story, which he has only seen in the movies since he has not read the book, is very anti-Christian to him. At the core of his issue is Aslan, who is obviously a incarnation of the Christ, and his violent crushing of his foes.

My favorite line from him is as follows:

"If the Church stands behind "Christian" stories such as this one, We make Ourselves into little more than the White Islam. We claim to love peace one moment, only to claim the next moment is special or too much and calls for anything-but peace."

In this post, I want to open up the problem of violence, and what it means. Those that criticize a violent God have the exact same core of the problem as those that do violence to others. Because they do not understand the fundamental nature of God and his rights, we misinterpret what the scriptures say, and we don't understand who God is.

Before we talk about the right viewpoint of God and violence, we need to first understand the two viewpoints commonly held in the church today.

Viewpoint 1: God Has Changed

This is the viewpoint that I see in our young reviewer above. To him and his friends, the image of God as a violent being that expresses this violence through people has clearly passed. He consider who Christ was and the time that he walked on this earth. Their logic goes something like this:

If we look in the Old Testament, we see God prohibiting a lot of things. For example, prostitutes were to be executed. People caught in adultery were to executed. Yet, when we get to the figure of Christ, we find a man that was willing to eat with the prostitutes. We see him saving a woman in adultery. The message that Jesus brings to the earth is that "we are all sinners." We should try and do good, but if we do bad, then we are forgiven.

So, the God in the Old Testament has transformed. He now has a New Testament and a New Covenant. We have the propitiation model.

Nobody is perfect, and that is okay.

Viewpoint 2: God As Being Justified In His Actions And Sometime Violence Is Okay

These people are much more open to violence of all sorts. They are the ones that are willing to go to Iran to fight. They are for a strong defense. They believe that America is right to go to war.

Now, let's look at a troubling passage in Numbers 31:

" 13 Moses, Eleazar the priest and all the leaders of the community went to meet them outside the camp. 14 Moses was angry with the officers of the army—the commanders of thousands and commanders of hundreds—who returned from the battle.

15 "Have you allowed all the women to live?" he asked them. 16 "They were the ones who followed Balaam's advice and were the means of turning the Israelites away from the LORD in what happened at Peor, so that a plague struck the LORD's people. 17 Now kill all the boys. And kill every woman who has slept with a man, 18 but save for yourselves every girl who has never slept with a man."

I had one of my family members state that God was justified in condoning this activity because the Midianites burned their babies. They were so bad, God just needed to kill off these people. So, in really "bad" cases, God will commit genocide. Thus, having a little war for a good cause is just fine. In really bad cases, God may need to wipe somebody out.

So, let us look at both of these viewpoint from a scriptural standpoint. Do these hold up?

For the new found tolerant person, they ignore Revelations 19.

11 I saw heaven standing open and there before me was a white horse, whose rider is called Faithful and True. With justice he judges and makes war. 12 His eyes are like blazing fire, and on his head are many crowns. He has a name written on him that no one knows but he himself. 13 He is dressed in a robe dipped in blood, and his name is the Word of God. 14 The armies of heaven were following him, riding on white horses and dressed in fine linen, white and clean. 15 Out of his mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations. "He will rule them with an iron scepter."[a] He treads the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God Almighty. 16 On his robe and on his thigh he has this name written:


17 And I saw an angel standing in the sun, who cried in a loud voice to all the birds flying in midair, "Come, gather together for the great supper of God, 18 so that you may eat the flesh of kings, generals, and mighty men, of horses and their riders, and the flesh of all people, free and slave, small and great."

We find out that the risen Lord is not a man of passiveness. We find he is not a man of tolerance. We find out that he is violent in nature, and his slaughter is so great that the birds feast on the flesh of the dead enemy.

Our milquetoast savior is gone. Left is a might force that is terrible to behold. A force the same as his Father.

The tolerant viewpoint just doesn't stand up.

But, how about the other viewpoint. The idea that in "really bad" cases, violence is okay?

This is as fatally flawed as the tolerant person. We must start off with the example of the early church. The gospel was spread by a group of individuals that were kind to all. They took in the prostitute and the greedy.

However, from a complete scriptural standpoint, these views are most difficult to puncture. So, of the two viewpoint this is the less egregious of the two.

However, we must appeal to commonsense here. One only needs to read of the 30 Year War that demolished the continental Europe to understand what religious "intolerance" means. Catholics, Lutherans, and Calvinists all killing each other because they had the "right view" of scripture. Schwedentrunk being practiced by the armies of the religious. Intolerance breeds destruction and curses down on the heads of Christians.

So, what is the right viewpoint?

The first thing to realize is that God knows and approves every death. Did you die in the great slaughter of Numbers 31? Yes? Then God approved this death.

Did you die of a heart attack? If the answer is yes, then God approved this death. Were you tortured and killed? Then God approved this death.

As hard as it may seem to us, God allows torture, suffering and pain. God approves and allows every death. Not a sparrow falls from the sky that God doesn't know about it.

"How can God be so heartless?" one might ask.

See this is the secret of the incarnation. With this act, God declares that "I ask you no more than what I did." Christ allowed himself to be tortured beyond belief, and see the worse of all deaths. While we may hate suffering, to God it is all part of life. It is not desired, and Christ asked for the cup to pass him by. But the lesson of the incarnation is that we must all take the road in front of us. I will not seek it out, as I am not a masochist. If asked to suffer, I will go begging and screaming in the other direction. However, I have no perception that this is "unfair." I am scared of it, but accepting.

It is my belief that killing is not wrong. The key, however, is that it must be God who directly commands the killing, for it to be right.

Now we get to the whole point of the right view of killing, tolerance, suffering, and genocide. The tolerant viewpoint gets it wrong, because they believe that God has changed. This is incorrect. He is exactly the same. With the advent of our Lord on Earth, what has changed is our rights and our relationship with the Lord. In the Old Covenant, we were dead under the law. In the New Covenant, we are freed from the law. However, because we are forgiven, there is no right for us to judge. By in large, we must give up our desire for revenge, and we must forgive.

I will not cast a stone at homosexual, and neither will I put an adulterer to death. I am a part of the new covenant, and I am following our Lord's example of how to live an earthly life.

However, this does not mean that the Lord has continued in this role. Mind you, we are not under the Old Testament Law. It is passed. However, holiness and purity are still required. Violence is no longer our option, but it is our Lord's.

We cannot listen to a crazy person or a pastor that tells us to take arms. We should not be convinced in some slick propaganda that we are "doing the right thing and defending our country."

However, if the Lord appears tomorrow on a White Horse and commands me to take up my sword....

I will do it willingly. And if that seems disturbing, I have great confidence that it will only happen after the rapture or the resurrection.